By David A. Scott, Jerry Podany, Brian B. Considine
The maintenance and learn of metals by way of the issues of decay and applicable equipment of exam and therapy more and more contain collaboration among scientists and conservators. The 16 essays during this quantity specialize in genuine gadgets from a variety of classes and cultures. members comprise Thomas Chase of the Freer Gallery in Washington, D.C., at the know-how of chinese language bronze casting; Paola Fiorentino of the Istituto Centrale del Restauro in Rome at the conservation of the equestrian statue of Marcus Aurelius; Knud Holm of the nationwide Museum of Denmark at the recovery of nineteenth-century zinc sculptures; Ian MacLeod of the Western Australian Maritime Museum at the conservation of metals from underwater websites; and W. Andrew Oddy of the British Museum at the use of gold foil and cord through the Iron Age in southern Africa
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Extra resources for Ancient & Historic Metals: Conservation and Scientific Research
02 36 BRONZE OBJECTS FROM LAKE SITES TABLE 3. X-ray diffraction Sample 87-27/001 Film No. 303 Reference ASTM 20-364 lines of posnjakite Cu4SO4 d (A) (OH)6 ? 15 4 bronze needle (Lab MAH 87-27, inv. 17773) from I the site of Champréveyres. 5 mmø, 30 kV, 20 mA, 11 hours, Fe unfiltered radiation. 93S) were also found. A small section of needle 87-194 was examined by different techniques to get a better understanding of the formation mechanism of the chalcopyrite lake patina. The copper-tin alloy was attacked locally, resulting in a fingerlike structure.
Is it even possible that both were formed simultaneously? Even after all the corrosion products have been identified, it is still not possible to answer this question nor those posed here initially. In order to write the biography of FIGURE 3. Bronze pin with lake and land patina. Lab MAH 86-77. FIGURE 4. Small bronze shaft with lake and land patina. Lab MAH 86-77. 41 SCHWEIZER TABLE 6. Appearance and Lab MAH No. 93S the bronze objects. the bronze objects, the environmental factors affecting corrosion-mineral formation and their fields of stability must first be considered.
The extremely widespread black alterations—probably formed of amorphous sulfides, carbon particles, and oxidized organic material—did not provide clear diffraction patterns, and their identification is inferred. Finally, the presence of gypsum and copper oxalate was found in many samples of the yellowish corrosion products, while in the internal walls of the castings, at points where there was the greatest accumulation of particulate on the outer areas, cupric chloride in a typical pitting formation was found.