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Additional resources for Allergens and respiratory pollutants: The role of innate immunity
5 components in the release of amphiregulin by human airway epithelial cells. Toxicol Lett 168: 155–64. 14 Karnovsky ML. (1981). Metchnikoff in Messina: a century of studies on phagocytosis. N Engl J Med 304: 1178–80. 15 Tauber AI. (1992). The birth of immunology. III. The fate of the phagocytosis theory.
However, B cell-dependent activation of CD4+ T helper cells more efficiently promotes a Th2-type pathway of differentiation. Thus, during the previous discussions, one can appreciate the specialized cells and complex signals required for driving a normal or immune-protective Th1 or Th2-type immune response. Several studies referred to above, as well as by others, (59–61) have informed us that following naïve CD4+ T cell 12 Allergens and Respiratory Pollutants activation, specialized Th1 or Th2 effector T cells are generated that express repertoires of cytokines whose sole purpose is to promote the elimination of infectious pathogens and parasites or to support the immunological activation of CD8+ cytotoxic T cells or antibody-producing B cells.
The onset or severity of allergic diseases like atopic asthma are influenced not only by the time and dose of exposure to a triggering allergen as discussed above, but also as a function of the variable interactions of “susceptibility genes” with an ever-changing and variable environment. Thus, while genetic factors play an important role in the pathogenesis of asthma, exposure of individuals to a myriad of ambient or occupational environmental exposures may dictate the relative susceptibility of individuals to atopic asthma, at least in part, and as we have learned above, by the modulation of the immune response by a host of environmental triggers.