By Peter C. Lloyd
This reissue, first released in 1982, is anxious with the swift modern metropolitan improvement within the 3rd global, at a time whilst production and public carrier sectors have been expending at an amazing cost. however, the exceptional development of the metropolitan towns brings with it a rise in social equalities, such that thirds of the inhabitants of those towns will be defined because the ‘urban poor’. This publication issues itself with the query: do we describe those city terrible as a ‘proletariat’, or are such Western type phrases absolutely beside the point to the advance of the 3rd global? Peter Lloyd examines the character of Western classification terminology derived principally from Marx and Weber, and assesses its application within the research of 3rd international city society. An review can also be made up of the political energy of the city terrible, whether or not they are mobilising themselves or being mobilised from above. This reissue could be proper to classes on improvement reports and the 3rd international; it's going to additionally discover a wider readership among social stratification and concrete sociology.
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Such a survey also could assist in estimating the future cost of the disability program. Based on these findings and conclusion, the Board of Trustees recommended that the DHHS initiate a significant research effort to establish more clearly whether the SSDI program’s rapid growth in the 1990s was a temporary or a longer-term phenomenon. In response to this recommendation, SSA initiated research aimed at understanding the growth of disability benefit programs—the changes in the size of the potentially eligible population, changes in the behavior of potential beneficiaries with respect to applying for benefits, changes in award rates, and the length of time beneficiaries remain on the rolls (DHHS, 1992; Muller and Wheeler, 1995).
In response to this recommendation, SSA initiated research aimed at understanding the growth of disability benefit programs—the changes in the size of the potentially eligible population, changes in the behavior of potential beneficiaries with respect to applying for benefits, changes in award rates, and the length of time beneficiaries remain on the rolls (DHHS, 1992; Muller and Wheeler, 1995). A number of research projects were initiated, including staff analyses and contracts to undertake econometric analyses of the causes of disability growth using cross-sectional data; a survey of field office managers undertaken by SSA as part of the research effort to understand the changes in the application behavior of individuals who are potentially eligible for disability benefits; and the Disability Evaluation Study (DES), later renamed by SSA the National Study of Health and Activity (NSHA).
Inability to engage in any substantial gainful activity by reason of any medically determinable physical or mental impairment which can be expected to result in death or which has lasted or expected to last for a continuous period of not less than 12 months . ” (Section 223 [d]). Amendments to the Act in 1967 further specified that an individual’s physical and mental impairment(s) must be “. . of such severity that he is not only unable to do his previous work but cannot, considering his age, education, and work experience, engage in any other kind of substantial gainful work which exists in the national economy, regardless of whether such work exists in the immediate area in which he 17 18 THE DYNAMICS OF DISABILITY lives, or whether a specific job vacancy exists for him, or whether he would be hired if he applied for work” (Section 223 and 1614 of the Act).