By Allan Bonnick, Derek Newbold
This article covers the entire obligatory and well known non-compulsory devices of the IMI Technical certificate and NVQ point 1 & 2 syllabus, from wellbeing and fitness and defense laws to fault discovering and exchanging parts. totally up to date, it additionally has motor vehicle upkeep tactics built-in all through, making it the imperative first lecture room and workshop textual content for all scholars of motorcar engineering, apprentices and willing amateurs. The textual content is made available to all degrees of skill via its transparent, logical procedure, very good illustrations and step by step improvement of thought and perform. there's information on getting ready portfolios of proof, and sensible routines are integrated to illustrate real workshop perform. *
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Additional info for A practical approach to motor vehicle engineering and maintenance
Some rings may be coated on their outer edge with chromium to give better wear characteristics and longer life. Normally three rings are fitted. The top compression ring takes most of the compression pressure and forms the first defence against the heat and escaping gases. It may be stepped so that it misses the ridge that tends to form in the cylinder bore at TDC. The second is also a compression ring that completes the sealing against compression loss. The third ring is the oil control ring. It is this ring that removes the excess oil from the cylinder wall, passing it back to the sump through holes drilled in the oil control ring groove of the piston.
Operation of the valves A number of different methods are used to open and close the valves, the most common methods are: . pushrod and rocker used where the camshaft is positioned in the cylinder block; . rocker, lever or finger used on OHC is fully open and rotate the crankshaft a further complete turn. The follower will now be on the lowest part of the cam and the clearance can be correctly set. The ‘rocking method’ is a quicker way of setting the valve clearances although it is not quite so accurate.
Third phase – direct or controlled burning Direct burning of the fuel as it enters the chamber gives a more gradual pressure rise. The rate of combustion during this phase is directly controlled by the quantity of fuel injected into the cylinder. Combustion and expansion of the gases takes place as the piston descends on its power stroke producing a sustained torque on the crankshaft during the time the gases are burning. Learning tasks 1. From what you have learned so far describe in your own words the main differences between combustion in a petrol engine and combustion in a diesel engine.