By N. R. H. Burgess, G. O. Cowan (auth.)
A there it's! advisor to bugs of scientific and public healthiness predicament, customarily within the tropics. each one bankruptcy covers identity, lifestyles cycle and conduct of the causative degree and its medical/public future health significance.
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Extra info for A Colour Atlas of Medical Entomology
The female horsefly will lay several hundred eggs, often in two or three layers, in a wide range of wet and damp sites depending on the species. For example, some Chrysops will prefer the waterlogged margin of a stream or pond, while some Haematopota will use the damp soil or grass stems in pastureland (Fig. 9). 7 Haematopota species. 9 Fig. 8 Chrysops species. Fig. 10 Haematopota pluvialis breeding site. In this meadow each red peg marks the position of one larva. Tabanid (Haematopota pluvialis) larva.
The pupa does not move or feed. The adult emerges into the water and is carried to the surface on a bubble of air, being washed downstream at the same time. Adults emerge in late spring and early summer in cooler regions, often attacking in large numbers, particularly in tundra regions. In the tropics, the life cycle is continuous. 7 Anal gills of Simulium larva. 45 BITING BLACKFLIES (Simulium) Onchocerciasis Fig. 8 Simulium pupa. MEDICAL SIGNIFICANCE The mouthparts of the female Simulium are short, broad and stubby; thus when feeding she will tend to stab the tissue and wait for the ruptured capillaries to ooze blood rather than sucking neatly like the mosquito.
Diagnosis is made serologically. Treatment is supportive, with intravenous fluids, blood transfusion, and steroids. Prevention is readily achieved by the use of the excellent vaccine, 17D. 46 Filariasis cases. (a) The leg. (b) The scrotum. 3 Mosquito arbovirus vectors Yellow fever (urban) (sylvatic) Dengue fever Encephalitis Japanese Aedes aegypti Aedes simpsoni Aedes africanus Haemagogus spp . Central and South America, Africa south of Sahara Aedes aegypti and other Aedes spp. Tropics Culex fatigans Culex gelidus Indian subcontinent, Southeast Asia South USA to northern South America Murray valley West equine East equine St Louis Venezuelan Chikungunya Aedes and Culex spp.