Download 1789: The Threshold of the Modern Age by David Andress PDF

By David Andress

ISBN-10: 142993011X

ISBN-13: 9781429930116

The realm in 1789 stood at the fringe of a different transformation. on the finish of an unparalleled century of development, the fates of 3 nations—France; the nascent usa; and their universal enemy, Britain—lay interlocked. France, a state bankrupted via its help for the yankee Revolution, wrestled to grab the prize of citizenship from the ruins of the previous order. catastrophe loomed for the U.S., too, because it struggled, within the face of crippling debt and inter-state rivalries, to forge the constitutional amendments that might turn into often called the invoice of Rights. Britain, a rustic humiliated via its defeat in the United States, recoiled from stories of imperial greed and the plunder of India as a king’s insanity threw the British structure into turmoil. Radical alterations have been within the air.
A 12 months of revolution was once topped in files drafted at nearly an identical time: the French statement of the Rights of guy and the yank invoice of Rights. those texts gave the realm a brand new political language and promised to foreshadow new revolutions, even in Britain. yet because the French Revolution spiraled into chaos and slavery skilled a rebirth in the United States, it appeared that the budding code of person rights may without end be matched by means of both robust structures of repression and control.
David Andress unearths how those occasions spread out and the way the boys who led them, comparable to Benjamin Franklin, Thomas Paine, Emmanuel-Joseph Sieyès, and George Washington, stood on the threshold of the trendy global. Andress indicates how the struggles of this explosive year—from the inauguration of George Washington to the start of the cotton alternate within the American South; from the British Empire’s battle in India to the road battles of the French Revolution—would dominate the outdated and New Worlds for the subsequent centuries.

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The title of The Beginnings of the Humanitarian Era | 15 Dr. M. Salbi’s 1919 description of the work of the Egyptian Armenian Red Cross and British relief workers at the Armenian refugee camp in Port Said, Aleakner ew khleakner—Waves and Wrecks—is evocative of the notion of humans nearly drowned and washed up on shore with nothing remaining but their emaciated and barely sensate being—a being whose survival was possible only with the help of others beyond their own community. Armenian refugees from the mountains near Antakya in the Ottoman province of Alexandretta are the subjects of Waves and Wrecks.

To fulfill international obligations it accepted in agreeing to the Treaty of Berlin, the Ottoman state established the Osmanlı Hilal-i Ahmer Cemiyeti, the Ottoman Red Crescent Society, as its analog of the Red Cross. 17 The resurgence of the Ottoman Red Crescent Society evidences the participation by elements at the highest echelons of the Ottoman state in emerging international humanitarian norms, or at least a degree of familiarity with those norms. Somewhat unique in the system anticipated by the Red Cross movement, the Ottoman state was also home to “subnational” nonstate Red Cross affiliates, including that of the Armenian Red Cross.

45 The close relationship between NER, the US State Department, and the various foundations affiliated with the Rockefeller family means possible lacunae in the organization’s own archives can been filled with correspondences, reports, and communications with those other bodies. Nevertheless, the temptation with these sources is to adopt their narrative form and reproduce stories of proposals and projects as they were initiated at the center and then implemented in the field. The result is a kind of antiquarianism and overly repetitive “laundry lists” of the activities of relief workers and descriptions of refugee camps, feeding centers, and resettlement programs that do little to explain modern humanitarianism as an ideology and practice.

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